Example: "cost in use" at dosage of 20 ppm at $432 per kg $432 x 0.02/1000 = $0.00864 per 1000g final food
scCO2 flavor extracts are highly concentrated and provide incredible "cost in use" value. For instance, it is generally recommended to begin formulating the FTNF Fruit flavor extracts at ~ 20 ppm, as that is all that is needed to deliver a significant difference in body and enhanced natural character of the taste and aroma.
Heat stability is limited, resulting in the evaporation of flavor. It is recommended to protect the flavor by packing it into the center of the baked item. If the scCO2 flavor extract is mixed directly into the dough and then baked, a high concentration has to be added to compensate for the inevitable losses. It is better to incorporate the scCO2 flavor extract into a glaze topping or fruit filling added after the heating/baking step (Note: scCO2 flavor extracts do not react any differently in this aspect than do other "volatile" flavor preparations; preventing evaporation requires encapsulation).
For scCO2 flavor extracts, plating seems unfavorable due to the high content of volatiles which get lost during the plating process itself. Encapsulating the extracts helps to preserve their high quality. The main problem with plated products is the rapid loss of flavor during storage. However, if a suitable support material is used (e.g., starch) some flavor may be absorbed and retained.
Yes, the oil-soluble herbs and spices can be applied to water-based systems providing an appropriate emulsifier is present. If there is no emulsifier present, then rarely or completely non-soluble as the concentration is normally higher than for the FTNFs.
The lower the temperature and/or the shorter the heating period, the better. The scCO2 flavor extracts contain the high volatiles that do evaporate. For instance, if the FTNF is used in an open system with high surface area, it will surely suffer losses, even when exposed to heat for a few seconds. From a chemical perspective, it should be stable, but evaporation is the main risk. (Note: chemical stability may be advantageously utlized when heated in a closed system, such as pasteurized cans and bottles.)